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Discovery radioactive dating
However, further research by Becquerel, Marie Curie, Pierre Curie, Ernest Rutherford, and others discovered that radioactivity was significantly more complicated.
Another unit of (radio)activity is the curie, Ci, which was originally defined as the activity of one gram of pure radium, isotope Ra-226.
At present, it is equal (by definition) to the activity of any radionuclide decaying with a disintegration rate of 3.7 × 10 Bq. The neutrons and protons that constitute nuclei, as well as other particles that may approach them, are governed by several interactions.
Materials exhibiting radioactive decay have yielded widespread application to enhance human welfare.
The various applications take advantage of the different decay properties, different decay products, and different chemical properties of the many elements having some isotopes that are radioactive.
One Bq is defined as one transformation (or decay) per second.
Since any reasonably-sized sample of radioactive material contains many atoms, a Bq is a tiny measure of activity; amounts on the order of TBq (terabecquerel) or GBq (gigabecquerel) are commonly used.
In the case of an excited atomic nucleus, the arbitrarily small disturbance comes from quantum vacuum fluctuations.
A nucleus (or any excited system in quantum mechanics) is unstable, and can thus spontaneously stabilize to a less-excited system.
As for types of radioactive radiation, it was found that an electric or magnetic field could split such emissions into three types of beams.
For lack of better terms, the rays were given the alphabetic names alpha, beta, and gamma; names they still hold today.