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The direct and indirect costs of malaria are very high and the disease has played a significant role in the poor economic performance of sub-Saharan Africa.Sachs (2002) estimated, that the gross domestic product in these countries would be up to 32% greater today if malaria had been eliminated 35 years ago [].

Additionally, all participants were classified into two ethnic groups according to their tribal background: the Akan and those who are the natives of the area and the Northeners who have a migratory background but are now permanent residents of the area.

It was hypothesized that children between the ages of 1 to 5 years are at highest risk of acquiring malaria; hence we stratified for age (≤ 1 year, 5 years).

The study was approved by the Committee on Human Research, Publications, and Ethics, School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Participants were allocated into one of the four village clusters described above (Greater Agogo, Greater Konongo, West of Agogo and Near Street), according to their place of residence.

All information on participants and their parents was treated confidentially.

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Only children who were examined for malaria and where information about the sociodemographic and socioeconomic situation was available were included in the analysis (n = 1496).Factors such as deteriorating health systems, growing drug and insecticide resistance, failure of water management but also socioeconomic, land-use factors, and climate are hypothesized to influence the emergence of malaria [].Sociodemographic factors such as ethnic group, parent's education and occupation, use of protective measures, and living standard of the family are suggested to be important risk factors for malaria and malaria epidemics [].Additional socioeconomic factors assessed in the Demographic and Health Survey 2008 and not considered here are marital status and religion, which we did not found appropriate in the context of the study.The aim of the presented study was to investigate the association between the socioeconomic status of families classified with a number of indicators as a PCA-based score and their association with childhood malaria.The objective of this study was to quantify household socioeconomic levels using principal component analyses (PCA) to a set of indicator variables and to use a classification scheme for the multivariate analysis of children In total, 1,496 children presenting to the hospital were examined for malaria parasites and interviewed with a standardized questionnaire.The information of eleven indicators of the family's housing situation was reduced by PCA to a socioeconomic score, which was then classified into three socioeconomic status (poor, average and rich).The study was carried out between May 2007 and August 2009 (duration 26 months).Diagnostic assessments were integrated into the hospital routine.Entomological evaluation during the study period indicated ~400 infective bites per person-year (EIR) (unpublished data).Subsidized insecticide-treated bed nets were available, and their use was encouraged.

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